12. International Renewable Energy


As many as 2 billion people still have no access to electricity [214]. Most of them live in countries located in tropical and subtropical areas, with greater availability of renewable resources (e.g., higher levels of solar energy) than developed countries. Many of these same countries lack much of the basic power grid infrastructure that developed countries built at considerable expense. In such cases, the flexibility and small size of renewable systems such as solar thermal, photovoltaics, and wind can be ideal. Another advantage associated with small size is speed of construction. Wind farms, for instance, can take less than a year to build. Also, the smaller capacity of renewable plants allows them more easily to match incremental changes in load growth and to meet the requirements of small load centers.

The world market for renewable energy production systems (excluding hydroelectricity) is estimated to be about $1 billion annually from 1990 to 2000.

Although renewable energy use has risen all over the world, it is estimated that developing countries (excluding Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) generate only 0.3 percent of their electricity from renewables.

This chapter updates information presented in the Renewable Energy Annual 1995. Overviews of worldwide renewable energy developments are presented below by type of energy source. The renewables covered in this section are wind, photovoltaic (PV), geothermal, biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW).


Status of the Worldwide Wind Energy Market

Worldwide, wind-generated electricity grew by more than 20 percent in 1994 with the installation of 25,000 new wind turbines, or roughly 611 megawatts of capacity. About 93 percent of the wind systems installed in 1994 were outside the United States, with the largest increases in Germany, India, and the United Kingdom. Table 36 shows wind capacity additions in 1995 and projected additions through 2010 for the top 15 countries in terms of wind energy capacity. Although U.S.-made wind technology is on a par with that of any other country, with few exceptions, U.S. utilities have not invested in the latest wind technologies as much as their foreign counterparts in the three countries mentioned.

Table 36. Installed Wind Capacity and Projected Capacity Additions for Selected Countries
Country Capacity
Installed in 1995 Cumulative Through
December 1995
Through 2010
Argentina 100-300
Australia 50-75
Chile 100-200
China 14 44 350-600
Denmark 98 637
Germany 500 1,132 200-350
Holland 95 249
India 375 576 700-1,200
Italy 11 33
Mexico 150-300
New Zealand 50-100
Spain 58 133 150-250
Sweden 29 69
United Kingdom 40 201 100-300
United States a1,731 b659
aExcludes 6.6 megawatts of utility capacity and 35 megawatts of nonutility capacity that were not captured by EIA sources.
bPlanned through 2003.
— = not available.
Sources: Foreign: Paul Gipe & Associates, “1996 Overview of Wind Generation Worldwide,” web site rotor.fb12.tu-berlin/ (August 26, 1996); and S. Kidney, “U.S. Wind Energy Firms Look Overseas,” Energy Extra (August 10, 1995). United States: Installed and Cumulative Capacity—Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Annual 1995, Vol. 2, DOE/EIA-0348(95/2) (Washington, DC, December 1996), pp. 15-16. Projected Capacity—U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, “Wind Energy Data: Monthly Summary Report” (September 1996).

In 1995, worldwide wind-powered generating capacity was 4,900 megawatts [215]. The additional worldwide capacity of wind turbines installed in 1995 was 1,289 megawatts. Most of this capacity was installed in Europe. In Asia and the Pacific, 95 percent of new installations in 1995 were in India, while China accounted for 14 megawatts. The total wind energy potential of China is estimated at 250,000 megawatts. The cumulative installed capacity in the United States fell by 14 megawatts in 1995 [216].

The world’s cumulative installed wind capacity is fast approaching 5 gigawatts [217]. Table 37 shows the continental shares of world wind power generation, which is about 10 terawatthours [218]. Because of continual improvements in design, manufacturing, materials, and electronic controls, wind farms of large wind turbines are now capable of producing electricity for as little as 4 cents per kilowatthour, in locations with good wind conditions.

Table 37. Continental Shares of World Wind Power Generation, 1995
Continent Percent Share
Asia 7
Europe 52
North America 40
South America and Africa 1
Source: Paul Gipe & Associates, “1996 Overview of Wind Generation Worldwide,” web site keynes.fb12.tu-berlin.de/luftraum/konst/overview.html (August 26, 1996).

The state-owned and newly privatized utilities in Latin America are beginning to show interest in wind energy. It is estimated that there may be as much as 250 megawatts of wind capacity on line in the region by the late 1990s [219]. The current size of the market is about $250 million, and it is attracting U.S. wind technology companies in search of new projects in view of the slow U.S. market. In addition to wind systems, hybrid systems combining wind and solar technologies are attractive for rural electrification projects in remote areas far from the power grid.


Annual shipments of PV cells have climbed from next to nothing in the early 1970s to more than 75 megawatts today [220]. In the past 10 years, PV sales worldwide have more than quadrupled, while installed costs have dropped by more than half [221]. The rapid decline in PV costs and the development of niche markets have increased PV demand at a rate of 15 to 20 percent a year.

PV manufacturers in the United States are currently exporting about two-thirds of their production (or about 20 megawatts) (Table 38) [222]. The recent surge in U.S. PV exports has occurred for the following reasons:

Table 38. Destination of U.S. Photovoltaic Cell and Module Export Shipments by Country, 1995
Destination Peak
Percent of
U.S. Exports
Destination Peak
Percent of
U.S. Exports
Africa Europe
Angola 0.4 * Austria 4.5 *
Benin 2.5 * Belgium 5.0 *
Burkina Faso * * Denmark 11.2 0.1
Congo * * England 79.3 0.4
Egypt 4.8 * Finland 29.0 0.1
Ivory Coast * * France * *
Morocco 31.6 0.2 Germany 3,754.7 18.9
Nigeria 2.4 * Netherlands 44.0 0.2
South Africa 1,293.6 6.5 Portugal 124.0 0.6
Tanzania 372.0 1.9 Spain 663.8 3.3
Tunisia 83.7 0.4 Sweden 122.1 0.6
Zimbabwe 165.3 0.8 Switzerland 799.0 4.0
Total 1,956.3 9.9 Total 5,636,6 28.4
Asia and the Middle East North America
Hong Kong 1,124.9 5.7 Canada 503.0 2.5
India 2,397.8 12.1 Dominican Republic 9.8 *
Indonesia 88.3 0.4 Mexico 493.0 2.5
Israel 7.5 * Total 1,005.8 5.1
Japan 3,615.9 18.2
Korea 82.7 0.4 South America
Malaysia 0.2 * Argentina 461.3 2.3
Philippines 594.8 3.0 Brazil 260.1 1.3
Singapore 1,351.6 6.8 Columbia 395.0 2.0
Taiwan 293.7 1.5 Ecuador 0.2 *
United Arab Emirates 369.0 1.9 Guatemala 70.0 0.4
Total 9,926.4 50.0 Nicaragua 35.0 0.2

Venezuela 0.4 *
Australia 15.6 0.1 Other Latin America 108.0 0.5

Total 1,330.0 6.6
Total U.S. Exports 19,870.8 100.0
* = Less than 500 peak watts or less than 0.05 percent.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, “Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey.”

Photovoltaics Projects in Japan

Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) adopted in December 1994 the Basic Guidelines for New Energy Introduction, which are aimed at strengthening energy security and positively contributing to environmental protection measures such as CO2 emission control. The following measures have been instituted to ensure progress toward the objectives of the guidelines: expansion of the subsidy system for early establishment of a self-sustaining PV market; establishment of a subsidy system for local governments involved in intensive and large-scale introduction of new energy technologies; and other increases in the budget to finance new energy development promotion. The promotion program for PV technologies will contain the following market- enhancing projects [223]:

Successful individual and collective candidates for the 1996 Residential PV Monitor Program and NEDO PV Field Test were decided in September 1996. The number of applications exceeded 10,000 for the first time. Significant price reductions, printed and electronic media reporting, national explanatory meetings, and consistent business efforts at manufacturers and sales outlets have increased public awareness of PV technology over the last 2 years.

Major Projects in Other Countries [224]

Brazil. Five hundred PV-powered battery charging stations are expected to be installed in Brazil by Golden Photon. More than $17 million worth of the “Electricworks” PV stations are planned; each system will supply 40 to 50 families with recharging service for batteries, which then can be used to power one or two high-efficiency lights, a radio or television, and other appliances. Owner-operators of the systems can charge batteries for surrounding residents for the equivalent of what these people are now spending on kerosene, candles, and dry cell batteries, the firm said.

Britain. One hundred schools and colleges throughout Great Britain will receive 1-kilowatt PV arrays within the next 3 years under a program funded by the U.K. government. Called the “Scolar Programme,” the program was selected by the government’s Foresight Initiative to receive œ1 million; each participating school must contribute about œ3,500 for the PV system. The Scolar Programme was the idea of Philip Wolfe, managing director of Intersolar Group, a PV cell producer in the U.K. The Foresight Initiative aims at supporting important British technologies needed in the next 10 years.

Australia. PV-powered radio signaling and communication systems have been installed along a 426-km (265-mile) railway between Port Hedland and Newman in Western Australia. The 54 PV systems replace wind and diesel hybrids removed due to high maintenance costs. Now the signaling, early warning detection, locomotive, and ore care monitoring systems are all linked to a central computer that displays operating status. The railway—owned and maintained by BHP Steel—is the largest privately owned railway in Australia.

Indonesia. Indonesia has begun a major national program to put renewable energy sources into its next planning cycle, reports PV News. More than 10,000 solar home systems were installed before 1991; 1 million rural solar homes is the stated goal for a 50-peak-megawatt PV program launched in 1992 and currently being implemented. The goal of the project is to provide electricity to 1 million households—about 10 percent of the 10 million rural families without electricity—by 2005. In addition to the 50-megawatt solar homes project, a program to improve remote health centers has been proposed. PV will be used to power vaccine refrigerators, freezers, and lighting under this $31 million program.

India. India is the largest PV market in the world today. According to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, nearly 10 megawatts of PV modules are projected to be installed during 1996. A recent drop in the interest rate (from 10.3 percent to 2.5 percent) from a U.S. $42 million grant from the World Bank in 1991 for PV market development has done much to stimulate the situation. A decrease in import duties during this time and increased production of cells and modules have resulted in a reduction in module prices from 225 rupees per watt in 1991 to 165 rupees per watt today. Recently, the World Bank agreed in principle to establish a $200 million second line of credit for the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA). For the first time, IREDA is providing foreign-exchange risk cover of 6 percent.


Table 39 shows the recent and projected installed geothermal electricity generation capacity of the world’s 21 countries that have developed commercial geothermal energy resources.

Table 39. Installed Geothermal Electricity Generation Capacity by Country, 1990, 1995, and 2000
Country 1990 1995 2000
Argentina 0.67 0.67 NA
Australia 0.00 0.17 NA
China 19.20 28.78 81
Costa Rica 0.00 55.00 170
El Salvador 95.00 105.00 165
France 4.20 4.20 NA
Greecea 0.00 0.00 NA
Iceland 44.60 49.40 NA
Indonesia 144.75 309.75 1,080
Italy 545.00 631.70 856
Japan 214.60 413.70 600
Kenya 45.00 45.00 NA
Mexico 700.00 753.00 960
New Zealand 283.20 286.00 440
Nicaragua 35.00 35.00 NA
Philippines 891.00 1,191.00 1,945
Portugalb 3.00 5.00 NA
Russia 11.00 11.00 110
Thailand 0.30 0.30 NA
Turkey 20.60 20.60 125
United States 2,774.60 2,816.70 3,395
World Total 5,831.72 6,761.98 9,927
aGreece has shut down its 2.0-megawatt Milos pilot plant.
bIncluding the Azores Islands.
NA = not available.
Source: International Geothermal Association, “Installed Geothermal Electricity Generation Capacity by Country and Year,” web site www.demon.co.uk/geosci/igahome.html (August 28, 1996).

Biomass: Wood and Charcoal Energy

Worldwide, annual average biomass fuel consumption totaled almost 14 quadrillion Btu over the period 1985-1990 (Table 40).Firewood and charcoal are important biomass fuels in many parts of the world. Urban populations in developing countries create strong demand for charcoal due to the advantages listed in Table 41. In sub-Saharan Africa, charcoal is a $2.5 billion per year industry and a significant factor in agricultural employment. Wood input of 31 million metric tons oil equivalent is used to produce 11 million metric tons oil equivalent of charcoal. By comparison, 100 million tons oil equivalent of firewood is consumed, reflecting a $500 million per year industry [225]. However, charcoal production is inefficient in some parts of the world and requires three to four times its weight in wood input to produce.

Table 40. Biomass Fuel Consumption and Production, 1985-1990
Region Biomass Fuel
Production and
(Quadrillion Btu)
North America 3.63
Europe 0.99
Nordic Countries 0.24
EEC 0.23
Central Europe 0.03
Southern Europe 0.33
Eastern Europe 0.16
Africa 2.1
Asia 4.4
Latin America 1.5
Oceana 0.1
Source: D.A. Tillman, The Combustion of Solid Fuels and Wastes (New York, NY: Academic Press, 1991), p. 66.

Table 41. Advantages and Disadvantages of Charcoal as a Source of Energy
Advantages Disadvantages
  • Burns without smoke.
  • Stores well.
  • Burns without flames.
  • Used in simple, cheaper stoves.
  • One-fourth to one-half the price of fossil fuels.
  • Poorly engineered kilns have production efficiencies of only 8 to 9 percent
    and cause environmental harm.
  • Inefficient stoves have efficiencies of only 20-35 percent.
  • Non-closed-loop sources of wood add to world carbon dioxide and
    methane inventories.
  • Related government policy in some countries has been ineffective and
    poorly coordinated.
  • Demand growth in some countries has been steady while prices have
    remained flat, limiting capital for process improvements.
Source: Based on R. van der Plas, The World Bank Group, “Burning Charcoal Issues,” FPD Energy Note No. 1, web site www.worldbank.org (April 1995).

In African countries, much of the raw material for charcoal manufacturing is ancillary to forest clearing. Therefore, an equivalent volume of wood is not replanted, and a net addition of carbon dioxide and methane to atmospheric inventories occurs. Regulation of charcoal production in developing countries has been difficult and inadequate. Reasons for this include lack of organizational capacity of governments to regulate, lack of coordination between government agencies, and arbitrary interventions into markets [226]. Improvements in government policy and tightening of regulatory practices represent administrative challenges. On the technical level, design changes in production kilns and residential stoves offer avenues to environmental and efficiency improvements. Inverted draft chimney designs and other refinements can improve kiln efficiencies by about a factor of four.

The World Bank has sponsored programs in recent years to promote the use of improved residential charcoal stoves. On an industrial scale, the World Bank is promoting the use of Casamance kilns (improved design and efficiency) in charcoal making.

Municipal Solid Waste

Europe is ahead of the rest of the world in terms of MSW utilization. Over 27 million metric tons of solid waste are used to generate electricity and for heating in Europe. Several countries in Europe already recover energy from waste; for example, Switzerland requires all incinerators to be equipped for energy output and is adding 10 new plants. Sweden now processes almost 1.5 million metric tons of MSW each year. Currently, the Netherlands targets 40 percent energy recovery from waste. In Brussels, Belgium, MSW thermal recovery processes supply more than 5 percent of electricity. In France, 25 percent of the total MSW is incinerated for energy production [227].

Overviews of Renewable Energy Status by Region


The development of renewable resources in Africa has been impeded by barriers to the availability of financing and resources. In the area of PV, however, African nations have made considerable advances. For instance, in Kenya, a series of rural electrification and other programs has resulted in the installation of more than 20,000 small-scale PV systems since 1986 [228, 229]. These PV systems now play a prominent role in decentralized, sustainable electrification.

Other examples of PV use in Africa are as follows:

Table 42 shows an assessment, by a consortium of nonprofit industry trade associations, of renewable energy resources and market potential in South Africa and Asia.

Table 42. Renewable Energy Resources and Market Potential in Asia and the Pacific and Africa
Country Biomass
(Kilowatthours per
Square Meter)
Asia and the Pacific
China a 600 1,800 d 4.0 1,336 253,000
India 3,800 17,000 2,000-
e 4.5 3,065 20,000-
Indonesia 1,800 10,000 1,200 19,000-
Pakistan 300 2,630-
Philippines 9 b 1,978 70 3.9
Russia c 110 25,500-
4.5 200
Subtotal 5,909 27,000 3,886 100-
26.2 4,601 273,000-
South Africa f 6.5 1,960
a = 260 million tons oil equivalent.
b = 105 million terawatts-electric annual yield.
c = 60 million tons oil equivalent.
d = 135 peak megawatts.
e = 30 peak megawatts.
f = 150 peak megawatts through 2010; total, 375 megawatts.
Note: Letters indicate availability of only partial totals or totals in different units. Dashes indicate data not available.
Source: U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy, Global Impact Analysis Report, submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy, Golden Field Office (August 1996).

The Americas

Table 43 shows an assessment, by a consortium of nonprofit industry trade associations, of renewable energy resources and market potential in the Americas. The following sections focus on three representative countries: Canada, Costa Rica, and Mexico.

Table 43. Renewable Energy Resources and Market Potential in the Americas
Country Biomass
(Kilowatthours per
Square Meter)
Central America
Costa Rica a b 950 2,240 4.5 60-3,000
El Salvador 165-250 400 2.0
Guatemala 500 100 1,800 4.5 60
Honduras c d 120 5.0
Nicaragua 2,000 4.5
Panama 360
Subtotal 1,165-
6,920 180-380 120-3,060
North America
Mexico 1,000 960 1,200-2,500 4.2 80-394 5,000
Barbados 12 4.0
Dominica 280
Dominican Republic 15-45 5.0
Haiti 5.0
Jamaica 5.0
Subtotal 27-57 290 4.0-7.0
South America
Argentina e g 3.8 500,000
Bolivia 50 4.0
Brazil 3,200-
3.5 21,700
Chile f h 1.9 25,000
Peru 2,000 4.5
Subtotal 3,200-
2,050 17.7 546,700
a = 17 to 500 million kilowatthours per year from sugarcane.
b = 400 to 500 million kilowatthours per year from sugarcane.
c = 54 million kilowatthours per year from sawmill.
d = 30 million kilowatthours per year from sawmill.
e = 50 megawatts at Copahue field, otherwise unknown.
f = Large but inaccessible.
g = 186 peak megawatts.
h = 50 peak megawatts.
Note: Letters indicate availability of only partial totals or totals in different units. Dashes indicate data not available.
Source: U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy, Global Impact Analysis Report, submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy, Golden Field Office (August 1996).


The Canadian government has three major programs to support the development of renewable energy [231]:

The private sector is also establishing programs to support the development of renewable energy. For instance, Ontario Hydro has set up the renewable energy technologies (RET) program, whose first request for proposals was in May 1995 [232]. Projects to be considered include individual wind turbines of Canadian adaptation and small and medium-sized wind farms, biomass generators, anaerobic digestion generators, sewage treatment gas generators, and hybrid technologies. While small power producers have welcomed the program, they are disappointed with the exclusion of small hydropower and landfill gas energy conversion projects, and with the small size of the solicitation. However, the company, like other Canadian utilities, is burdened by overcapacity (as much as 5,000 megawatts of excess capacity in 1995).

Costa Rica

The administration of President Jose Maria Figueres has signed executive orders and legislative proposals to adopt sustainable development as the guiding vision for the country. As part of a sweeping plan for green economic growth grounded on social justice, Costa Rica has set the goal of producing 98 percent of its electricity from renewable sources by 2000 [233].

The geothermal generation capacity of Costa Rica in 1995 was 55 megawatts. The main geothermal field is the Miravalles Field, where two plants were built in the early 1990s. One is a 50-megawatt single-flash condensing plant, the other a 55-megawatt plant expected to come on line in 1997. Including plants in construction and in the planning stage, capacity by the year 2000 should be about 170 megawatts.

In the area of wind, the New World Power Corporation is participating in a project to build three wind power plants, each with 20 megawatts of capacity [234]. The power produced displaces fossil-fuel-fired generation and is sold to the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. The first plant came on line in May 1996, the second is under construction, and the third is in the planning stage.


As a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Mexico is obliged to address its significant environmental problems. To that effect, the World Bank and the North American Development Bank are making available loans and other assistance funds. The second-largest sector of the Mexican environmental market is renewable energy [235].

At present, Mexico has installed geothermal energy capacity of 753 megawatts at three fields: Cerro Prieto (620 megawatts), Los Azufres (98 megawatts), and Los Humeros (35 megawatts) [236]. There are plans to add four 20-megawatt units at Cerro Prieto in 1997 and two 64-megawatt experimental plants after that. At Los Humeros, a 3-megawatt experimental unit was added in 1995, and 3 megawatts more are planed for the future. At La Primavera, a 70-megawatt potential has been identified and may be developed in the future. Finally, a 40-megawatt addition is planned at Los Azufres. Thus, by the year 2000, Mexico plans to have about 960 megawatts on line. The Comision Federal de Electricidad continues to devote substantial professional resources to geothermal activities, including about 200 man-years of scientific activity per year (as of 1994). In addition, both private industry and universities have expended significant resources on geothermal energy efforts.

In terms of solar and PV, an ice-making system with a parabolic trough solar collector was installed in Maruata, Michoacan, in 1992. Also, one of several rural PV electrification pilot projects is producing more than 1,600 kilowatthours per square meter per year [237].

Asia and the Pacific

Table 42 shows an assessment, by a consortium of nonprofit industry trade associations, of renewable energy resources and market potential in the region. The following sections focus on two representative countries: Indonesia and the Philippines.


The government of Indonesia has a goal of 2,000 megawatts of installed geothermal energy capacity by 2000—an additional 1,691 megawatts over 1995 [238]. The additional capacity will come in part from 740 megawatts in Java, 20 megawatts in Sulawesi, and 10 megawatts of mini-plant (i.e., 35 to 1,000 kilowatts) installations for rural, off-grid electrification. Another 4,000 megawatts are planned to be on line by 2020, which may make Indonesia the largest geothermal energy producer in the world [239].

Indonesia recently passed two regulations that affect the geothermal industry. The first allows the state-owned oil company, Pertamina, to sell electricity to the state power company, PLN, and to other agencies. The other regulatory change allows for steam field development and power plant construction by private industry and a decrease in taxes from 46 percent to 34 percent. Most of the projected development will be built by private industry, working under the terms of joint operation contracts signed with Pertamina. Financing for a number of these projects will come from the World Bank.

Table 44 shows Indonesia’s geothermal energy potential. The total potential geothermal resources amount to 16,000 megawatts. A host of foreign companies have participated with Pertamina in the development of geothermal energy resources, including Dutch, French, and U.S. companies. Examples of the latter include Unocal, Chevron, Texaco, Caithness Resources, and California Energy International.

Table 44. Geothermal Energy Capacity in Indonesia
Area Geothermal Energy Capacity
Installed Proven Probable Potential Resources
Java and Bali
Kamojanj 142.0 210 300 462
Dieng 2.2 285 575 1,430
Salak 55.0 280 370 600
Darajat 120 250 420
Wayang Windu 260 420
Patuha 400 685
Telaga Bodas 200 300
Karaha 200 250
Wilis 100 170
Bali 215 325
Others 2,050 3,400
Subtotal 199.2 895 4,920 8,100
Sibajak 140 240
Sarulla 280 380
Sibualbuali 600 750
Kerinci 75 115
Others 2,500 3,400
Subtotal 3,595 4,885
Lahendong 205.0 65 175 300
Tompaso 230 400
Kotamobagu 200 300
Others 350 500
Subtotal 205.0 65 955 1,500
Other Areas Subtotal 1,050 1,550
Country Total 404.2 960 10,520 16,035
Note: A probable resource is one that has a greater than 50 percent chance of possessing geothermal energy capacity. A potential resource is defined as having a less than 50 percent chance of possessing geothermal energy capacity.
Source: “Geothermal Energy in Indonesia,” East Asian Executive Reports (May 15, 1995), pp. 12-16.

The Philippines

The Philippines is now the world’s second-largest producer of geothermal electricity, after the United States. In 1994, the Philippines had an installed capacity of 1,191 megawatts [240]. The fields now in production and their gross outputs are Mak Ban (426 megawatts), Tiwi (330 megawatts), Tongonan (112.5 megawatts), Palimpinon (193 megawatts), and Bac Man (130 megawatts). An additional 754 megawatts of proven reserves have been identified at nine other sites, and 1,250 to 2,630 megawatts of potential capacity is available at 19 other sites. The total installed capacity by 1998 is estimated at 1,945 megawatts. The development of geothermal power in the Philippines has been difficult at times, but the Filipinos have been successful and have contributed significant technical improvements to the field. Private industry has been active in geothermal development through the government’s use of build-operate-transfer and build-transfer-operate contracts. The ultimate potential for geothermal power generation is estimated at 3,000 to 4,000 megawatts.

Selected Countries in Europe


Present-day wind power technology owes much to the early efforts of firms of the United States and Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s [241]. Although both sets of companies started out around the same time, with similar knowledge and technology, and aided by government incentives, Danish firms are generally credited with the superior performance of their wind turbines. This led to the capture of significant market share in the U.S. market. Between 1982 and 1986, the Danish market share of the rapidly expanding California wind farm market rose from 0 percent to 68 percent. At the end of the decade, Danish firms accounted for 45 percent of installed turbines. By 1993, the Danish cumulative share of the world market was 53 percent, while the U.S. share was roughly 25 percent, mostly concentrated in the United States. The annual worldwide market share of Danish firms rose from 38 percent in 1993 to 44 percent in 1994, giving them a preeminent position in the world market.

Recent wind energy projects in Denmark include the Velling Maersk-Taendpibe plant, in Jutland Peninsula, which consists of 100 turbines, and a 23.4-megawatt plant operating at Rejfvy Hede since 1995. Denmark also has about 60 district heating biomass conversion plants. The fuels of choice for these plants are straw and wood chips.


Finland’s geography has endowed it with abundant wind energy resources. There are a number of projects designed to take advantage of these resources. The most important one is the Kopparn„s Wind Power Park, which consists of three turbines installed beginning in 1986. The latest, built in 1995, is a 50-kilowatt hydrotronic turbine [242]. This turbine uses a novel power transmission technology, using hydraulics to transmit to a generator located on the ground, which generates electricity directly to the high-voltage network. Also at Kopparn„s, a PV plant was commissioned in 1989 by IVO, a Finish utility.

International Efforts in Support of Renewable Energy

The World Bank

As of mid-1996, the Word Bank and its Global Environmental Facility had a combined 41 projects in several stages of development, from appraisal to ongoing (Table 45). The Bank’s renewable energy projects in the pipeline for fiscal years 1997 and 1998 amount to a total Bank component (share) cost of $468 million [243].

Table 45. World Bank Renewable Energy Projects, Approved and in the Pipeline, 1996
Country Project Name Status Technologies Free-
Benin Renewable Energy Pipeline Unspecified No
Mauritius Sugar Bio-Energy Technology
Ongoing Cane/coal cogeneration Yes
Tunisia Tunisia Solar Water Heating Ongoing Solar hot water Yes
Cameroon Cameroon Energy Project Pre-IEPS Unspecified, PV assumed No
Cape Verde Cape Verde Power Project Pre-IEPS Wind, PV No
Cape Verde Energy/Water Project Pipeline Unspecified No
Chad Household Energy & T.A. Appraisal Unspecified, PV assumed No
Ethiopia Energy Sector Pipeline Unspecified No
Mali NA Pre-IEPS Solar PV Yes
Morocco NA Concept Unspecified, PV assumed Yes
Tunisia Renewable Energy Strategy Study Concept Solar PV Yes
Zambia Zambia Power Rehabilitation
IEPS Unspecified, PV assumed No
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Energy Project IEPS Unspecified, PV assumed No
Niger Niger Energy Project Ongoing NA No
Djibouti Djibouti Geothermal II Ongoing Geothermal No
Kenya Kenya Geothermal Development Ongoing Geothermal Yes
East Asia and Pacific
Indonesia Second Rural Electrification Project Approved Mini-hydro, mini-geothermal No
Indonesia Solar Home Systems Pipeline Solar PV Yes
China China FY 98 GEF Project Appraisal Unspecified: PV, wind, biomass,
Philippines Leyle-Cebu Geothermal Project Ongoing Geothermal power Yes
Philippines Leyle-Luzon Geothermal Project Ongoing Geothermal power Yes
Indonesia Indonesia Renewable Energy
FEPS PV, biomass, wind,
Indonesia Hybrid Renewable Energy for
Remote Applications
Concept PV, wind, diesel hybrids Yes
Philippines Bacon Manito Geothermal Ongoing Geothermal Yes
Philippines Philippines Energy Sector Loan Ongoing Geothermal Yes
South Asia
India Indian Renewable Energy
Resources Development
Ongoing PV, wind, micro-hydro No
Pakistan Pakistan Waste-to-Energy Pre-appraisal Landfill methane power Yes
India India Solar Thermal Power FEPS High-temperature solar parabolic
Sri Lanka Energy Services Delivery FEPS PV, wind, mini-hydro Yes
Lithuania Lithuania Geothermal Project Appraisal Geothermal district heating No
Poland Geothermal & Environmental
Appraisal Biomass Yes
Hungary Hungary Biomass Project IEPS Geothermal district heating Yes
Poland Poland Geothermal Project II IEPS Geothermal district heating No
Slovak Republic Slovak Republic Geothermal
Appraisal Geothermal district heating Yes
Latin America
Bolivia Rural Electrification Project Pipeline Unspecified No
Costa Rica Electric Power Development Loan Approved Wind No
Brazil Biomass Pilot Power Project Appraisal BIG/GT No
Peru FY 97 WB/IDB Rural Electrification
IEPS Unspecified Yes
Argentina Power Sector Policy Reform Pre-IEPS Unspecified; PV and small wind No
Brazil Energy Efficiency and Conservation Approved Cane-cogeneration No
Guatemala Panteleon Sugar Mill Project Ongoing PV, wind, micro-hydro No
FEPS = final executive project summary; FY = fiscal year; GEF = Global Environmental Facility (part of the World Bank Group); IDB = Inter-American Development Bank; IEPS = initial executive project summary; NA = not available; PV = photovoltaic; WB = World Bank.
Notes: “Concept” means the project is being informally discussed only. “Pre-IEPS” is the phase before IEPS when the project is under discussion only. “Appraisal” indicates the formal field mission to the project area is addressing financial, legal, technical, and economic analysis questions associated with the project. “Pipeline” means an approved project is formally put in the lending program at the WB for the purpose of timing disbursements. “Ongoing” indicates the project has been approved, the loan is effective, and money is disbursed. In the Free-Standing Status column, “yes” indicates the entire project is in the renewable energy area; “no” indicates renewable energy is just a component of a larger, diversified project.
Source: A. Young and E. Terrado, World Bank Pipeline Renewable Energy Projects (FY97-98), Solar Initiative, The World Bank Group (August 22 and November 18, 1996).

The World Bank created the Solar Initiative in 1994 to coordinate its projects in the area of renewable energy. The Solar Initiative is not a distinct entity within the World Bank but rather a part-time reallocation of existing human resources [244].

The Inter-American Development Bank

The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) has also been active in supporting renewable energy, although the level of lending has not always satisfied donors and advocates. Reasons for this dissatisfaction include the relative cost-effectiveness of proposed projects, institutional and regulatory frameworks, the absence of private sector participation, current level of development of the technology, and other project-specific reasons [245]. The IDB had the following renewable energy project in FY 1996:

U.S. Agency for International Development

USAID has renewable energy programs managed in-country by five field offices—Mexico, Dominican Republic, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines—and two global programs managed by the Office of Energy, Environment, and Technology in the Center for the Environment at USAID in Washington, DC. The two programs managed out of Washington are Renewable Energy Applications and Training (REAT) and Biomass Energy Systems and Technology (BEST). The two latter programs are summarized below and in Table 46 [246].

Table 46. USAID Renewable Energy Host Country Projects Under BEST and REAT as of December 31, 1995
Umbrella Project Description Renewable Source Host Country
Renewable Energy
Application and
Training Project
Funds for preinvestment
Biomass Cook Islands, Honduras, Costa Rica
Photovoltaics Honduras, Philippines
Coalbed methane recovery Ukraine
Geothermal Nicaragua
Hydroelectricity Honduras
Wind Argentina
Photovoltaic/wind hybrid Indonesia
Biomass Energy
Systems and
Field-recovery trials of
commercial utilization
Biomass (sugarcane field trash) Thailand, India, Brazil
Develop private power
All renewables Costa Rica
Assessments of industry
potential, avoided-cost
electricity pricing, and
electric interconnection
Biomass sugar-factory cogeneration Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras,
El Salvador, India, Indonesia,
Source: R. Slone, Energy, Environment and Technology, Center for Environment, U.S. Agency for International Development (Washington, DC, October 1996).

Renewable Energy Applications and Training

The REAT project was created in 1985 to promote and assist in the application of economically and environmentally sustainable renewable energy technologies in USAID-assisted countries. Worldwide project activities include renewable energy project identification, design, preparation for financing, and development; education and training; economic and technical evaluation; trade- mission support; and provision of educational and promotional information on technologies, applications, and U.S. vendors in the area of sustainable energy.

REAT promotes the use of cost-effective, commercially viable renewable energy technologies and applications utilizing solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and small hydro resources, emphasizing private-sector participation. REAT assists in the identification of viable commercial projects and in sharing the cost of preinvestment studies that can leverage project financing and implementation. REAT also works with host country government institution, USAID missions, and private sector interests to design, develop, and evaluate projects and programs that will lead to the export of U.S. renewable energy products and services.

Project accomplishments include the following:

Biomass Energy Systems and Technology

The BEST project was created in 1989 to identify and reduce the technological, economic, financial, and institutional risks of investments in biomass power production in USAID-assisted countries. Project activities take place simultaneously in Latin America and Asia and include industry resource assessments, feasibility studies, technical assistance, workshops, technical exchanges, and information dissemination.

The project focuses primarily on the generation of electricity from agricultural residues, such as crop wastes from sugar and rice and wood-wastes. It promotes the use of commercially proven technologies and systems adapted to the conditions in developing countries.

Project accomplishments include the following:

Other International Organizations

Center for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies

The International Energy Agency (IEA) created the Center for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET) to disseminate information on demonstrated energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies and to enhance the exchange of information among member countries on new energy saving and renewable energy technologies that have been demonstrated in applications in all end-use sectors [247]. CADDET will only be in effect through 1998. Its 1996 activities included the promotion of CADDET products, publication of brochures and newsletters, and workshops.

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was created to promote the economic and social well-being of the Asia-Pacific region by cooperating in several economic areas [248]. One of the areas is renewable energy technology cooperation, where APEC has an Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program.

The European Business Council for a Sustainable Energy Future

The European Business Council for a Sustainable Energy Future promotes technologies that fight global warming. No additional information is available at this time.

U.S. Government Efforts in Support of Renewable Energy

In followup to the Hemisphere Energy Symposium, which took place October 29-31, 1995, in Washington, DC, as preparation for the Summit on Sustainable Development, the U.S. Department of Energy participated in the Hemispheric Energy Ministerial Meeting, July 31-August 2, 1996, in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. This meeting was attended by energy ministers from the western hemisphere, the Hemispheric Energy Steering Committee, other government representatives, multilateral development banks, financial institutions, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations.

The Hemispheric Energy Ministerial Meeting had the following goals: increasing investment in the energy sector, promoting clean energy technologies, furthering regulatory cooperation, promoting hemispheric collaboration to support economic and environmental sustainability in the oil sector, presenting new opportunities for the use of natural gas, supporting energy efficiency, developing rural electrification strategies in the hemisphere, and future projects to be developed on a regional level in the hemisphere. The meeting concluded with a declaration of principles on sustainable energy development, establishment of technical assistance programs, and cooperation in implementing energy projects in the hemisphere.

Committee on Renewable Energy Commerce and Trade

The Committee on Renewable Energy Commerce and Trade (CORECT) is a 14-member interagency working group of the Federal Government that began as a response to increasing competition from government-aided European and Asian industries [249]. Its objectives are to forge an effective partnership between the U.S. private sector and the Federal Government to mobilize the resources of the CORECT member agencies and assist the renewable energy industry to increase international market share.

The committee’s activities include cofunding and cosponsoring of trade missions; and sponsoring the development of the FINESSE (Financing Energy Service for Small Scale Energy Users) program to aid in the bundling of smaller renewable energy loans into larger loan packages for consideration by development banks and commercial lending institutions. This led to the formation of the Asia Alternative Energy (ASTAE) unit, part of the World Bank Group, which has approved a $450 million renewable resources development project for India and is currently reviewing significant renewable energy loan packages for a number of other Asian nations.

Memorandum of Cooperation with Russian Ministry of Fuels and Energy

A memorandum of cooperation signed in October 1993 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Russia’s Ministry of Fuels and Energy has as its objectives to identify viable, cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy projects; to identify project financing; and to provide training to Russians [250]. The agreement’s activities include workshops, business plan training, and technical assistance. One project, a geothermal plant in Kamchatcka, has begun a first phase and has attracted interest for later phases. Progress has also been made on three priority renewable projects: a PV and wind energy system demonstration project in Fili Park, Moscow; wind turbine pilot projects in the northern Russian territories, which have been highly effective; and an agreement to build a 1-megawatt electric power plant using wood processing wastes.

Other U.S. Department of Energy Programs and Participation

DOE participates in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) with the following objectives: to disseminate information on U.S. demonstrated energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies to decisionmakers in APEC nations; to link U.S. producers with new export markets; to provide an avenue for identifying specific export opportunities; and to promote private sector interaction between member countries in developing the infrastructure to support an expansion in the delivery of energy efficiency and renewable energy products and services nationwide [251]. The program’s activities include technical support, hosting workshops, technology analysis, business development, and resource assessments.

The U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ ECRE) is a consortium of nonprofit industry trade associations funded in part by DOE. This organization supports the export activities of the domestic renewable energy and energy efficiency industries.

Renewable Energy Annual 1996
April 1997
[Click on any entry to go there.]

Front Matter
1. Renewable Data Overview
2. Biomass Profile: Wood and Ethanol
3. Municipal Solid Waste Profile
4. Geothermal Energy Profile
5. Wind Energy Profile
6. Solar Industry Profile
7. The Role of Electric Utilities in the Photovoltaics Industry
8. Public Policy Affecting the Waste-to-Energy Industry
9. Flow Control and the Interstate Movement of Waste: Post-Carbone
10. Growth of the Landfill Gas Industry
11. Management of Known Geothermal Resource Areas
12. International Renewable Energy
Appendix A. EIA Renewable Energy Data Sources
Appendix B. Renewable Data Limitations
Appendix C. Geothermal Energy and Geysers
Appendix D. Environmental Impacts of Geothermal Energy
Appendix E. Examples of Contract Arrangements at The Geysers
Appendix F. Additional Solar and Photovoltaic Tables
Appendix G. Moody’s Bond Ratings
Appendix H. LFG: Commercial Energy Recovery Case Studies
Appendix I. List of Internet Addresses: Renewable Energy Information by Resource
Appendix J. State Agencies That Provide Energy Information

File last modified: April 16, 1997

Mark Gielecki
Phone: (202) 426-1141
Fax: (202) 426-1280