Distribution Category UC-950

Renewable Energy Annual 1996

April 1997

Energy Information Administration
Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels
U.S. Department of Energy
Washington, DC 20585

This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization.


This report was prepared by the staff of the Renewable Energy Branch, Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. General information regarding this publication may be obtained from Fred Mayes, Chief, Renewable Energy Branch (202/426-1166, e-mail Questions about the preparation and content of the report should be directed to Mark Gielecki, project coordinator (202/426-1141, e-mail

Questions regarding specific chapters of the report should be directed as follows:

1. Renewable Data Overview:
John Carlin (202/426-1146,
Fred Mayes (202/426-1166,
Louise Guey-Lee (202/426-1143,

2. Biomass Profile: Wood and Ethanol:
Robert Lowe (202/426-1171,

3. Municipal Solid Waste Profile:
John Carlin (202/426-1146,

4. Geothermal Energy Profile:
Jim Disbrow (202/426-1185,

5. Wind Energy Profile:
Mark Gielecki (202/426-1141,

6. Solar Industry Profile:
Peter Holihan (202/426-1147,

7. The Role of Electric Utilities in the Photovoltaic Industry:
Peter Holihan (202/426-1147,

8. Public Policy Affecting the Waste-to-Energy Industry:
John Carlin (202/426-1146,

9. Flow Control and the Interstate Movement of Waste: Post-Carbone:
John Carlin (202/426-1146,

10. Growth of the Landfill Gas Industry:
John Carlin (202/426-1146,

11. Management of Known Geothermal Resource Areas:
Jim Disbrow (202/426-1185,

12. International Renewable Energy:
Mark Gielecki (202/426-1141,


This report, the Renewable Energy Annual 1996, is the second in a series of annual reports published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide current information on renewable energy worldwide. In so doing, this report updates the information presented in the Renewable Energy Annual 1995 and further documents and explains renewable energy information provided in EIA’s Annual Energy Review 1995 [1]. In addition, this report extends the scope of the previous issue by providing descriptive information on various segments of the renewable energy industry and discussions of new or ongoing renewable energy projects, as well as discussions of emerging economic and legal issues that affect the industry. It covers the following energy sources: biomass, geothermal, wind, and solar. While hydropower is a renewable energy resource, it is also regarded as a “conventional” energy source because it has furnished a significant amount of electricity for more than a century. Therefore, this report discusses hydropower as it contributes to total renewable energy consumption but does not address hydropower as an individual energy source [2]. Also, EIA collects data only on terrestrial systems. Satellite and military applications are not included in this report. See Appendix A, “EIA Renewable Energy Data Sources,” and Appendix B, “Renewable Data Limitations,” for more detail.

The biomass sections of this report include updated information similar to that published in EIA’s Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992 [3]. The solar sections include information similar to that previously published in Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1993 [4]. EIA has discontinued publishing the latter two reports.

The Energy Information Administration was established formally by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91). The legislation requires EIA to carry out a comprehensive, timely, and accurate program of energy data collection and analysis. It also vests EIA with considerable independence in determining its mission and the data and analyses it chooses to present. After approval by the EIA Administrator, products are not subject to further review. However, because EIA believes that collaborative efforts produce the best results, external reviews of its products—such as this report—are solicited, prior to approval, from other offices in the Department of Energy, other Federal agencies, and non-government experts. EIA remains the final judge of product content.


The Energy Information Administration gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following people:

From the National Renewable Energy Laboratory:

Jeff Fang

Robert McConnell
Tom Williams

Vahab Hassani

Gerald Nix
Brian Parsons

Municipal Solid Waste
Carlton Wiles
Philip Shepherd

Sam Baldwin


Masood Akhtar
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Forest Products Laboratory

Jean Zellner
APA - The Engineered Wood Association
Tacoma, WA

Dan Brandon
Morbark Corporation
Winn, MI

Maria Zannes
Katie Cullen
Integrated Waste Services Association
Washington, DC

Renewable Energy Annual 1996
April 1997
[Click on any entry to go there.]

1. Renewable Data Overview
2. Biomass Profile: Wood and Ethanol
3. Municipal Solid Waste Profile
4. Geothermal Energy Profile
5. Wind Energy Profile
6. Solar Industry Profile
7. The Role of Electric Utilities in the Photovoltaics Industry
8. Public Policy Affecting the Waste-to-Energy Industry
9. Flow Control and the Interstate Movement of Waste: Post-Carbone
10. Growth of the Landfill Gas Industry
11. Management of Known Geothermal Resource Areas
12. International Renewable Energy
Appendix A. EIA Renewable Energy Data Sources
Appendix B. Renewable Data Limitations
Appendix C. Geothermal Energy and Geysers
Appendix D. Environmental Impacts of Geothermal Energy
Appendix E. Examples of Contract Arrangements at The Geysers
Appendix F. Additional Solar and Photovoltaic Tables
Appendix G. Moody’s Bond Ratings
Appendix H. LFG: Commercial Energy Recovery Case Studies
Appendix I. List of Internet Addresses: Renewable Energy Information by Resource
Appendix J. State Agencies That Provide Energy Information
Background Information and 1990 Baseline Data

File last modified: August 20, 1997

Mark Gielecki
Phone: (202) 426-1141
Fax: (202) 426-1280