Economic Consideration Relating to TDF
The capital costs associated with modifying feed and emission control
equipment for TDF burning in cement kilns are minor in most cases. Therefore,
the cost savings from TDF is essentially equal to the savings in fuel cost
by using TDF in the kiln. This fuel cost advantage is attractive to cement
plants because the process is so energy intensive.
However, cement kilns can accommodate many alternate fuels, so that
regional availability and price of alternatives may affect the cost advantage.
Because of their consumption, cement plants are able to buy conventional
fuels in bulk and at somewhat lower prices in general.
This economic consideration is the most significant barrier for TDF
As discussed in another section of this report, the price of the processed
tire, TDF, is highly dependent on the size reduction and wire removal process.
Boilers require higher quality (fine particle and wire-free) TDF
compared to cement kilns.
Another economic barrier is the capital investment required. In general,
boilers require some modifications of their configuration to burn TDF properly.
Further research must be conducted to reduce technical difficulties
and minimize economic barriers.
Electric utilities consume so much primary fuel, that they are able
to obtain low prices for fuel and transportation. TDF has to compete with
this strong fuel buying leverage.
However, because of their enormous scale, 3% of the fuel feeding a
365 MW plant (average size) is the equivalent of 6 to 7 million tires annually.
This usage would have a strong environmental impact on the waste tire problem
and the real benefit and purpose of TDF burning might not only come from
Among all industries using TDF today, utilities have the greatest potential
if a stable market and supply of TDF would be achieved.
Pulp and Paper Mills
Pulp and Paper mills do not have strong fuel buying power and additional
capital costs for emission control are required. However, TDF improves
boiler performance and this functional advantage may overcome the additional
The fuel cost problem is considered as site-specific since fuel costs
General Industrial Boilers
As mentioned previously, most of the problems and advantages associated
with general industrial boilers are similar to those discussed in connection
with pulp and paper mills.
Lamarre, Tapping the Tire Pile, EPRI Journal, Sep-Oct 1995 v20 n5 p28(7)
Joel I. Reisman,
Paul M. Lemieux, Air Emissions from Scrap Tire Combustion, EPA, Oct. 1997
Protection Agency et al, Scrap tire Technology and Markets Noyes Data Corporation,
DiChristina, Mired in tires. (junk tires), Popular Science, Oct 1994
v245 n4 p62(4)
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